Last Update: 24th December 2019

Viewers for Remote Observations

The Nobeyama 45-m telescope can be remotely operated using four viewers: NRO_RemoteObs_1, NRO_RemoteObs_2, NRO_RemoteObs_3, and NRO_RemoteObs_4. For the users who will perform observations from the NAOJ Mitaka site, please see Remote Observations Manual for Users (From Mitaka) page. The observers from institutes in Japan can learn how to launch these viewers at Remote Observations Manual for Users (From Institute) page. Note that the links can be accessed after establishing the VPN connection or from the NAOJ network.

NRO_RemoteObs_1 viewer
NRO_RemoteObs_1 viewer
NRO_RemoteObs_2 viewer
NRO_RemoteObs_2 viewer
NRO_RemoteObs_3 viewer
NRO_RemoteObs_3 viewer
NRO_RemoteObs_4 viewer
NRO_RemoteObs_4 viewer


The primary functions on the operation of the telescope is concentrated on the NRO_RemoteObs_1 viewer.

NRO_RemoteObs_1 viewer

Although you can see many windows and GUIs in the viewer, important items for observations are as follows:

COSMOS GUI (Main Console for the Telescope Operation)

The Nobeyama 45-m telescope is operated with the system named "COSMOS". You can run observing scripts via the COSMOS GUI which can be found at the NRO_RemoteObs_1 viewer.


If the COSMOS GUI is not launched, please double-click the icon named "cosmos" on the desktop window in the NRO_RemoteObs_1 viewer.

Taking the Priority of the Telescope

When your observing time comes, please confirm the observations of the previous observer is complete using at #ObsMessages channel in Rocket.Chat. Then, input your observing account ID and project name on Group and Project in the COSMOS GUI. Push the "Change Observer" button. You will have the priority of the 45-m telescope. The next step to do is tuning of the receivers.

COSMOS Monitor (Current Status of the Observation)

The COSMOS Monitor is the terminal that reports the current status of the observation. It illustrates detail information of the running observing scripts. If the system encounters an unexpected situation, messages will be shown in the COSMOS Monitor with the background colour of yellow or red. Yellow messages indicate a warning that is not a severe problem for the system. Although some yellow messages can be ignored such as "FFT OverFlow", others may affect on your data (ex. "Tsys abnormal": In most cases, this message appears when the combination of the direction of mirrors is wrong, or the LOAD is still inserted. Otherwise, the weather is extremely bad.).

COSMOS Monitor

Mirror Control Window (Changing the Direction of Mirrors)

In order to guide the radio wave to the receiver you are going to use, it is needed to change the direction of mirrors inside the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. The mirrors can be operated remotely by pushing a button at the Mirror Control Window.

Mirror Control Window GUI

In case you cannot find the Mirror Control Window on the desktop window, please launch the window by clicking "" icon on the desktop window in the NRO_RemoteObs_1 viewer. icon

The window has seven buttons: >

  1. Check where am I
  2. Forest
  3. H22
  4. H40
  5. T70
  6. Z45
  7. H22+H40

'Check where am I' button tells you which receiver is currently ready. The observatory recommends checking the direction of the mirrors after you take over the priority.

Other buttons can change the direction of mirrors to the corresponding receivers. If you push the button, it takes about a minute to change the directions of the mirrors. Please wait for the movement of the mirrors. When the movement is done, you can see a message on the top of the window:

'<Name of The Receiver>' mode now

Then, you can run the next observing script.

MMC Execute Panel

For open-use observers, the MMC (milli-metre calibration device) Execute Panel is mainly used when they intend to tune the T70 receiver and perform continuum observations. In this panel, "OPEN" means "the telescope is open for observations (the light path is clear)".

The Operation of the LOAD

The LOAD acts as a shield in order to protect receivers from strong emission emitted by artificial satellites. It is automatically inserted when the elevation of the telescope is higher than 82 degrees (This means that the Nobeyama 45-m telescope cannot observe a target while its elevation is higher than 82 degrees). The LOAD stays inserted unless users explicitly send a command to remove the LOAD from the light path. When you forget to move the LOAD to appropriate position, a message is poped up in the NRO_RemoteObs_1 viewer and a message appears on the COSMOS Monitor.
Remote observers can check the LOAD position at Live Camera window (the top-right camera) in the NRO_RemoteObs_4 viewer.

Live Camera and the Load

Live Camera window. The top-right window shows the position of the LOAD.

the Load (inserted position)

A red rectangle illustrates the LOAD. In this picture, you can see the LOAD is inserted.

In order to remove the LOAD, please push the "LD1-OPEN" button in the MMC EXCUTE PANEL after the elevation of the telescope is below 82 degrees. It takes about 10 seconds to move the LOAD from the light path.

The button to remove the LOAD from the light path

You can check the position of the LOAD at the Live Camera window in the NRO_RemoteObs_4 viewer. When it successfully moved, you can see like the following picture:

The LOAD is off

If you push the "LD1-OPEN" button while the elevation is higher than 82 degrees, the following warning message will appear on the COSMOS Monitor window.

The message when the LOAD is inserted

Note that both "LD1" and "LD2" words indicate the LOAD in the current system (no difference in a meaning).

The Operation of the Beam-Switch Calibration Device

For the continuum observation, the Nobeyama 45-m telescope uses a beam-swich calibration system. This system enebles the telescope observe the target and the sky that is close to the target in a very short time. The Beam-Switch Calibration Device looks a white fan-shaped metallic plate. The plate rotates to switch the on-source position (i.e., the target) and the sky position quickly.

Beam-Switch Calibration Device

When an observation script for the continuum observavtion is run, the plate automatically start rotation. However, the plate continues rotating even when the observation scripts are finished. After continuum observations, please stop the plate rotating. This can be done by pushing the "BS-OPEN" button.

The Button to Stop the Beam-Swich Calibration Device Rotating
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The NRO_RemoteObs_1 viewer has windows that relates to the current observation.

NRO_RemoteObs_2 viewer

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The NRO_RemoteObs_3 viewer contains windows that illustrate the antenna position and observation logs.

NRO_RemoteObs_3 viewer

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Other relevant monitors concerning observations such as (the monitor for tuning a receiver and weather monitor) are packed in the NRO_RemoteObs_4 viewer. We are sorry for the inconvenience.

NRO_RemoteObs_4 viewer

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