Last Update: 1st November 2018

Proposal Information

Call for Proposals

The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan invites proposals for the Nobeyama 45-m telescope.

The Nobeyama 45-m telescope is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) for centimeter to millimeter wavelengths. In this call for observing proposals, four-beam spectroscopy or continuum observations in 80-116 GHz bands, and single-beam spectroscopy or continuum observations in 20-116 GHz bands are offered.

Ken'ichi Tatematsu
Director, Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Information on the 2018-2019 Observing Season

The following information is about observations with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope.

2750 hours and 280 hours are expected to be available for open-use observations and Guaranteed Time Observations, respectively. Astronomers and researchers in the related fields (including graduate students) can submit proposals. Besides, undergraduate students, who are already admitted to graduate schools, can also submit proposals. We only accept proposals written in English.

Applicants are required to refer carefully to the instruction in this web page, Status Report, and A Guide for Preparation and Submission via Web.

For semester 2018B, proposals requesting LST = 8-16 hr are encouraged, because this LST range was largely undersubscribed in semester 2018A.

Semester Category Submission Deadline Observing Period
Semester 2018A Regular Program Saturday 1st September 2018,
15:00JST [06:00UT]
Saturday 15th December 2018 --
Friday 15th March 2019
Short Program
Backup Program1
Guaranteed Time Observations
Large Program Saturday 15th December 2018 --
Wednesday 15th May 2019
Semester 2018B Regular Program Saturday 1st December 2018
15:00JST [06:00UT]
Saturday 16th March 2019 --
Wednesday 15th May 2019
Short Program
Guaranteed Time Observations
Joint Proposal for the Nobeyama 45-m
Telescope and the ASTE Telescope
--- Director's Discretionary Time Anytime after Submission Deadline
for Each Semester3
Saturday 15th December 2018 --
Wednesday 15th May 2019
1. Open Use Period
From 15th December 2018 to 15th May 2019

It is subdivided into two semesters:
Semester 2018A: 15th December 2018 -- 15th March 2019
Semester 2018B: 16th March 2019 -- 15th May 2019

2. Observing Categories

There are seven observing categories available for the Nobeyama 45-m telescope.

Regular Programs:
Regular Program is a program requiring the observing time less than 200 hours. Two deadlines are set for the Regular Program for 2018-2019 observing season.

Large Programs:
A Large Program must be based on a robust scientific argument and has a potential of leading to projects with significant impact over 200 hours in total over up to 2 years (over 300 hr proposal will be automatically assigned over two years). The PI should request to obtain data in the period of either 1 or 2 years in the Science Justification part. The observatory may ask the PI to change to 2 years dependent on demand of an LST range.

Short Programs:
Short programs are for exploratory observations or follow-up of previous observations. Time request for the short programs is limited up to 20 hours.

Backup Programs:
Backup Programs are for observations at 20 GHz-band and/or 40 GHz-band that do not require good weather conditions. Backup observations are conducted when high-frequency programs give up observations because of insufficient weather conditions. Backup Programs are available for researchers affiliated with Japanese institutes.

Joint Proposals with the ASTE telescope:
Projects that scientifically benefit by observing at both ASTE and Nobeyama 45-m telescopes are encouraged to submit their proposals to this category.

Guaranteed Time Observations (GTO):
Guaranteed Time Observation program is a new category. Proposals for GTO Programs can only be submitted by
- the teams whose "Proposals for Development for Nobeyama 45-m Telescope" have already approved, and instruments are decided to be open-use instruments.
- graduate students and posdocs in the observatory who contribute to science operations, commissioning activities or optimisation of the Nobeyam 45-m telescope and authorised by the observatory.
The total observing time for GTO programs is less than 280 hours.

Note that VLBI observation proposals including the Nobeyama 45-m telescope should be submitted to Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, NAOJ. Details can be obtained at Mizusawa VLBI Observatory and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astronomy).

3. Deadlines

45-m Semester 2018A (Regular, Large, Short, GTO, and Backup programs):
1st September 2018, 15:00JST [06:00UT]

45-m Semester 2018B (Regular, Short, GTO, and Joint with the ASTE programs):
1st December 2018, 15:00JST [06:00UT]

The observatory only accepts Target of Opportunity observations for Regular, Short, DDT programs.

4. Facility Receivers

H22, H40, Z45, T70, and FOREST receivers are available for the open use.
On-On mode observation with FOREST receiver is offered.

5. Other Information

Japan domestic remote observation other than Mitaka may be possible as risk-shared, depending on test results.
Remote observations from ASIAA and KASI are available as risk-shared.
One large program accepted for two observing seasons (2017-8 and 2018-9) will be allocated for LST = 2-9, 17-23 hr (the remaining time for 2018-2019 observing season is 182 hr). For this reason, congestion in this LST time is expected.

There is a risk that this Call for Proposals can be the last call for the open use of the 45-m telescope of Nobeyama Radio Observatory, depending on the budgetary condition of the observatory.

Requested hours of all submitted proposals vs Allocated hours for accepted proposals at each LST: A sum of Regular Program, Short Program for the 2017-2018 observing season, and Carried-Over programs from the 2016-2017 observing season. If you click the figure below, you can see a larger image.

LST Pressure

The Difference from the 2017-2018 Observing Season

Important notice about the main differences from the previous season is summarised as follows:

Data Archive ID Please be sure to obtain an account of Nobeyama Science Data Archive, and specify the ID in the Web Submission Form. The ID will be used for tagging on the data that will be open in the CASA format after 18 months of the observation at Nobeyama Science Data Archive.
Frequency Setting Please append an excel file of your observation frequency settings, including information such as receiver, 1st LO frequency, IF/sideband, line/transition, rest frequency, etc. on the Web Application Form as well as a pdf file of scientific justification. The template excel file can be obtained the following link: DeviceSetting_2018b_rev01.xlsx
Dump Time on On-The-Fly Mode Dump time for On-The-Fly mode is allowed to be not only 0.1 second but 0.04 second as well. However, there is a limit on the size of the map when using 0.04 second (30 arcmin. ≤ size ≤ 60 arcmin.). Besides, please justify the reason why you need to be observed in 0.04 second in the proposal.
Remote Observation Experienced observers are allowed to perform remote observations in Japan (Not limited to the NAOJ Headquarter in Mitaka, Tokyo), in Taiwan (from Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics [ASIAA]), and in Korea (from Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute [KASI]). Those who wish to perform remote observations should state in "Site" section in the Web Application Form and read carefully instructions summarised in Remote Observation. No compensation of observing time will be made even when your observing time is lost due to trouble, bad weather, or any cases. A preliminary test is needed before your observation. The remote observation site for the Short Program is limited to from confirmed remote observation sites. If applicants have experience of remote observations previously and intend to perform remote observations for the Short Program not from Mitaka site, please inform the planned observation site via the Helpdesk after acceptance of the proposal.
Time Estimator The time estimator on OTF is updated: time estimation with dump time of 0.04 second.
Large Program and GTO Program No assistant will be assigned at the Year-End and New Year Holidays and the Golden Week (Spring Holidays) for Large Programs and GTO Programs. For this reason, a team of the Large Program and the GTO Program must include at least one experienced observer who can observe without an assistant. The experienced observer is defined as a person who has experience of observation within the past four years and can solve typical COSMOS (an observation software used for the Nobeyama 45-m telescope) troubles. The observatory offers a brief lecture to observe without an assistant for Large Programs and GTO Programs.
H22 and H40
Simultaneous observation of H22 and H40 is offered from Semester 2018B. We note that system temperature will be slightly higher in the simultaneous observation. Please refer to the status report (Table 1).

Other Notice for Applicants

Helpdesk NRO offers Helpdesk support. Requests and questions about the open use of the Nobeyama 45-m telescope can be available through the Helpdesk. A trigger of Target of Opportunity observations should be sent to the Helpdesk.
Web Submission We accept the proposal only via web submission form. If you face any difficulty in web submission, please contact us through the Helpdesk.
Support for New Users The NRO staff offers support for observers who are not familiar with observations using the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. We provide support from help getting started to full collaboration. Please contact us via the Helpdesk for questions on proposal preparation, observing techniques and strategies, observation scripts, and data analysis.
ToO Observation Please note that you should submit a proposal for Regular Programs, Short Programs, or GTO Programs for studies of expected ToO (Target of Opportunity) objects such as comets, gamma-ray bursts, and extragalactic supernovae. The ToO trigger should be sent to the Helpdesk.
Beam Rotation Angle Inclined-scan mapping from the reference coordinate is NOT allowed for observations with the FOREST receiver. For instance, users can only choose the beam rotation angle of -180, -90, 0, 90, and 180 degrees.
On-On Observation For the On-On observation, applicants can use Beam 1 and Beam 3 of FOREST receiver (beam separation is ∼70 arcsec) instead of the decommissioned TZ receiver.
Observational Support for the Open Use The assistant supports the open use observations, including remote observations. The assistant conducts the receiver tuning and the troubleshooting. In order to shorten communication time between users and the assistant, experienced users can tune the receiver by themselves.
Proprietary Period By default, data obtained as part of the Nobeyama 45-m science program are subject to a proprietary period of 18 months starting when all the observations of each project are complete.
Change Request Major change requests are defined as 1) adding new sources, 2) changing observing lines, and 3) changing mapping areas from the original proposals. Change requests are made through the Helpdesk. After contact to the Helpdesk, an observer must submit a paper in which reasons are described within 1 page of A4. The paper must include a clear description of the proposed change along with a clear, substantive justification for the change. The requests will be evaluated by the Time Allocation Committee (TAC) chair and the observatory director and will be approved only if they are fully justified. Change requests duplicating against current NRO proposals will not be approved.
Effect by Automotive Millimetre-Wave Radar Automotive millimetre-wave radar mounted on the car may cause unwanted signals at 76-77 GHz. The observatory suggests users avoid RF setting around 76--77 GHz if possible. Following pdf files represent the results of test observations of receiving automotive millimetre-wave radar emitted from different types of cars: link1 link2
Re-allocation Cancelled observing time due to unexpected instrumentation/telescope failure will be re-allocated. Observing time surrendered to backup programs due to bad weather also will be compensated. Regarding the top-ranked proposals, the observatory intends to compensate as much as possible so that scientific goals can be achieved.
Travel Support (1)The observatory will support travel expenses of domestic transportation in Japan for up to two observers per program is supported if you request financial support from the NAOJ. (2)If you come to NRO by train, the observatory offers transportation service from Nobeyama Station to the observatory. Please describe the need for transportation service and your arrival time on On-line Submission of Observing Plan Sheet.
Cooperative Observation The observatory encourages applicants to study based on observations with the 45-m telescope and the ASTE Telescope and/or the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT).
Visiting Instruments The observatory allows to carry-in visiting instruments. Call for Proposals for Development for Nobeyama 45-m Telescope (Already ended for this year). If you are planning to carry-in a new instrument such as a receiver, you are requested to submit a PI instrument proposal to the observatory. The procedure can be asked through our Helpdesk. Especially, we strongly request the PI to contact the observatory via the Helpdesk about your plan before submitting a funding proposal.
NRO's policy NRO's Policy to Exclude Military Researches from the Open Use of the Observing Facilities

Preparation and Submission

Proposal Preparation Guide: Submission Instructions: Proposal Submission Form

Instrumentation Overview

Instrumentation overview of the Nobeyama 45-m telescope is summarised in the following links:

If Your Proposal is Approved

If your proposal is approved, PI (a delegate) needs to send an observing plan sheet. Observers who will visit NRO can make a reservation for lodging with the sheet. The observatory will support travel expenses for two domestic observers (two times in total for observations and data reduction).

Instructions for Observers (written in English): Instructions for Observers (written in Japanese):

A computer account is necessary for your observations. Information of the account will be sent to the principal investigator (or the contact person).


If you have any question or request about the open use of the Nobeyama 45-m telescope, please send it to the Helpdesk.
2018-08-01 Last Update